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Low Locoregional Recurrence Rate Among Node-Negative Breast Cancer Patients With Tumors 5 cm or Larger Treated by Mastectomy, With or Without Adjuvant Systemic Therapy and Without Radiotherapy: Results from Five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Randomized Clinical Trials.
Taghian AG, Jeong JH, Mamounas EP, Parda DS, Deutsch M, Costantino JP, Wolmark N.
J Clin Oncol. 2006 Aug 20;24(24):3927-32.

Purpose: Lymph node (LN) -negative breast cancer tumors > or = 5 cm occur infrequently, and their optimal management is not well defined. In this study, we assess patterns of locoregional failure (LRF) in LN-negative patients who underwent mastectomy, either with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy and without postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT).

Patients and Methods: Of 8,878 breast cancer patients enrolled onto National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-13, B-14, B-19, B-20, and B-23 node-negative trials, 313 had tumors that were 5 cm or larger (median, 5.5 cm; range, 5.0 to 15.5 cm) at pathology and were treated by mastectomy. Median follow-up time was 15.1 years. Therapy included adjuvant chemotherapy in 34.2% of patients; tamoxifen in 21.1%; chemotherapy plus tamoxifen in 19.2%; and no systemic therapy in 25.5%.

Results: Twenty-eight patients experienced LRF. The overall 10-year cumulative incidences of isolated LRF, LRF with and without distant failure (DF), and DF alone as first event were 7.1%, 10.0%, and 23.6%, respectively. Cumulative incidences for isolated LRF as first event for patients with tumors of 5 cm or more than 5 cm were 7.0% and 7.2%, respectively (P = .9). For patients who underwent no systemic treatment, chemotherapy alone, tamoxifen alone, or chemotherapy plus tamoxifen, the incidences were 12.6%, 5.6%, 4.6%, and 5.3%, respectively (P = .2). The majority of failures occurred on the chest wall (24 of 28 patients). Multivariate analysis did not identify significant prognostic factors for LRF.

Conclusion: In patients with LN-negative tumors > or = 5 cm who are treated by mastectomy with or without adjuvant systemic therapy and no PMRT, LRF as first event remains low. PMRT should not be routinely used for these patients.

PMID: 16921044